Water Pressure Requirements in High-Rise Buildings

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Water Pressure Requirements in High-Rise Buildings

In high-rise buildings, a properly designed hot water distribution system presents several challenges. A compliant system requires a minimum pressure at every fixture. Per standards and guidelines, the minimum pressure is generally around 200 kPa (2 bar or 25 psi). Meeting the minimum pressure requirement in a high-rise building, requires a pump because water pressure drops approximately 10 kPa (0.1 bar or 1.5 psi) for every meter that it rises.

Although the pump helps meet the minimum pressure requirements for the higher floors, it causes problems elsewhere because the maximum pressures must not be exceeded that are generally around 500 kPa (5 bar or 80 psi). Without proper design considerations, achieving the minimum pressure at the top of the building, almost certainly means exceeding the maximum pressure at the bottom of the building.  The Figure shows an example of the pressure drop between floors in a high-rise building.

How to Design Hot Water Recirculation Systems in High-Rise Buildings (h2xengineering.com)Image source: How to Design Hot Water Recirculation Systems in High-Rise Buildings (h2xengineering.com)

Without appropriate design considerations, meeting the minimum pressure requirements at the highest floor means exceeding the maximum pressure limits at the lower four floors.

The use of pressure reduction valves (PRVs) and pressure zones (where the pressure is within a desired range) helps to provide a balanced system in high-rise buildings and avoids long wait times to receive hot water.

Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
Email us at [email protected]

Water Pressure: Can You Dig It? Can You Dig with It?

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Water Pressure: Can You Dig It? Can You Dig with It?

With a horizontal water pressure drill you can. For example, a water drill kit from one company enables horizontal boring under driveways or parking lots for a distance up to 50 ft. The kit includes a 3-inch water drill bit, swivel adapter, swivel assembly and a horizontal drill key.

Water Drilling Kit with 3” Bit - Little Beaver Store

Water drilling kit with 3” bit. Image source: Little Beaver Store.

Simple connecting the water swivel to a garden hose and some extra ¾” Schedule 80 water pipe enables a homeowner or worker to trench a path for running electrical wires or plumbing under the ground. In addition, it can simplify digging holes for a lamp post or plants. The water pressure from the home, typically between 40 to 60 PSI, provides sufficient force for water to do the digging.

Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
Email us at [email protected]

Pressure and Barotrauma

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure and Barotrauma

Changes in barometric (air) or water pressure can cause a body injury called barotrauma. There are several different types of injuries from pressure especially from diving which compresses or expands gas contained in various body structures. Common injuries including:

      • Pulmonary (lung) barotrauma
      • Mask barotrauma (mask squeeze)
      • Ear barotrauma (ear squeeze)
      • Sinus barotrauma (sinus squeeze)
      • Dental barotrauma (tooth squeeze)
      • Eye barotrauma (eye squeeze)
      • Gastrointestinal tract barotrauma (gut squeeze)

Surprisingly, the risk of barotrauma is greatest from the surface to depths of 33 feet (10 meters). Perhaps the most well-known diving barotrauma is the bends, decompression sickness or nitrogen narcosis. The basic recommendation to avoid the bends is ascending slowly from every dive with 30 ft (10 m) per minute being a safe ascent rate.

mystkittsdivebuddy - Decompression SicknessImage source:
https://mystkittsdivebuddy.com/decompression-sickness-what-you-need-to-know/

Ears are a common location for barotrauma caused by water pressure as noted above but also by a change in altitude when flying in an airplane. Common symptoms include:

      • Pain
      • A feeling of stuffy ears
      • Hearing loss
      • Dizziness

Treatments for ear barotrauma target relieving the pressure and include chewing gum and yawning. In some instances, decongestants may also help relieve the pressure.

Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
Email us at [email protected]

The Pressures That Were Rome

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

The Pressures That Were Rome

Engineering was among the skills that allowed the Romans to expand and maintain their vast empire: the roads that led to Rome, Hadrian’s Wall that divided Britannia, the Coliseum, the Pantheon and aqueducts, the plumbing that brought water to the Seven Hills.

The Aqua Claudia, one of 11 aqueducts of Rome, channeled fresh water 46 miles into Rome (Unearthed: S7 E12, Seven Wonders of Rome) based on gravity alone without any additional pressure. To maintain a consistent gradient with minimal deterioration of the channel, the water flowed due to a drop of only 9 inches (0.3 psi) in 30 feet.

Roman Aqueducts - Aqua ClaudiaA mountain channel and portion of Aqua Claudia
Source: http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romaclaudia/

According to legend, one of the more amazing water pressure feats in Rome was the flooding of the Coliseum to hold simulated sea battles. Archeologists believe a three-foot-wide tunnel running between the walls of the Coliseum may lead to a labyrinth of circular channels that flooded the floor in the center of the arena. The hydraulic system would have required significant pressure and produced a rapid flow of water to flood the arena to a depth of around 1 ½ meters with 3 ½ million gallons of water within a few hours. Water flowing directly from the aqueducts could not have produced these results.

Discovering the ruins of a monumental fountain uphill from the Coliseum, archeologists speculate that water from an aqueduct fed the fountain and was stored 6 meters (almost 20 feet) above the Coliseum. With a sufficiently steep grade, the hydraulic pressure from this height (8.7 psi) may have been enough to accomplish the flooding. After the sea spectacle, four huge drainage channels opened to flush the water away so the more well-known gladiator competitions could be held.

Comments/Questions?
Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
Email us at [email protected]