Pressure and Hydro-Pneumatic Tanks

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure and Hydro-Pneumatic Tanks

Hydro-pneumatic tanks are designed to store water and air under pressure. With stored air pressure, this type of water storage does not require the constant use of a pump, saving energy and wear and tear on the pump, while quickly providing water on demand. Separated by a diaphragm, the 30 to 50 psi system is pre-charged (pre-pressurized) to 25 psi in the air portion and should be 2 psi below the pump start-up pressure.

The system has four operating cycles based on pressure. The start-up cycle occurs when the pressure is 28 psig and the diaphragm is pressed against the bottom of the air chamber. In the fill cycle, water is pumped into the tank’s reservoir forcing the diaphragm upward into the air chamber, exceeding 40 psig. A pressure of 50 psig initiates the hold cycle shutting off the pump. At this point, the diaphragm is at its highest position and the water reservoir is filled to capacity. During the delivery cycle, the pump stays off (until 40 psig is reached) while pressure in the air chamber forces the diaphragm downward to deliver water with a system pressure of 40 to 50 psig.

For safe operation, a maximum 100 psig is specified for some models.

A O Smith Hydro-pneumatic Well Tank

Image source: A O Smith at Lowes

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A Pressure Treat

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

A Pressure Treat

Pressure treating wood stabilizes its dimensions, protects it from insects, increases its resistance to water and chemicals and reduces cracking. The pressure treating process involves both vacuum and pressure. Initially, a vacuum removes the air from the cavities in the wood to create space for the preservation solution. The vacuum levels in a given process vary but could range from -700 mmHg to -730 mmHg.

Then, a protective solution, commonly alkaline copper quat or ACQ, is forced deep into the wood under high pressure in an autoclave.  A hydraulic overpressure of 12 atmospheres or somewhere between 100 and 200 psig is common.

In general, the basic procedure consisting of initial vacuum, filling, application of pressure, discharging the solution, recovery vacuum and return to atmospheric pressure at the end of a cycle.

In the United States, the chemical protection from applying high pressure (in psi) is measured in the pounds of chemical per cubic foot (PCF) increase in the density of the wood. The density ranges from 0.40 PCF for ground contact to 0.60 PCF for foundations.

Pressure Treated WoodA basic pressure treating process uses pressure and vacuum.
Source: Nash by Gardener Denver.

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Inflating a Nose Balloon

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Inflating a Nose Balloon

Recently, a friend told me about a harrowing healthcare experience he just had and how pressure came to the rescue. It turns out he suffered about four broken nose experiences when he played sports in high school. In each instance, the coach reset the breaks. Compounded by the effect of high pressure that can be exerted when excessively blowing the nose over many years and other factors, he suddenly had a massive nose bleed (or epistaxis in clinical terms). The bleeding was at the back (posterior as opposed to anterior chamber) of the nose. To stop the profuse bleeding, the doctor inflated a silicone balloon catheter. Although it is a non-surgical procedure, it turned out to be quite painful, since over 120 mmHg pressure had to be exerted to stop the blood flow.

Invotec Silicone Epistaxis BalloonInvotec Silicone Epistaxis Balloon.
Image source: Invotec International.

In contrast, with balloon sinuplasty, a thin balloon catheter is inserted into the nose and the balloon is gradually inflated to relieve blockages and widen the sinus pathways, rather than stop bleeding.

In either case, pressure provides the solution to these health issues.

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A Pressure Shortage?

 

A Pressure Shortage?

In 2021, a shortage of semiconductors impacted automotive companies’ production, smartphone new product introductions, and more. Also, the Colonial pipeline hack created a fuel shortage for the U.S. southeastern states. While the new outbreak of COVID-19 in India has received global attention since it has reported more than 300,000 daily infections for 22 consecutive days, what is less well known is that the outbreak has caused a shortage in oxygen (O2) concentrators.

For those COVID patients who do not require intensive care, oxygen concentrators deliver about five to 10 liters of oxygen per minute, typically at about 93% purity.  Unlike tanks or other containers supplying oxygen, concentrators use electrical pumps to provide a continuous supply of oxygen by removing the nitrogen from the surrounding air. To monitor the process and safely supply air to the patient, an oxygen concentrator uses differential pressure sensors for flow measurements and gauge pressure sensors for sensing pressure at different points in the process. The low differential pressure measurements for flow are typically only a few kPA. For those addressing the oxygen concentrator shortage, essentially any of All Sensors DLHR, DLVR, ELV, ELVR, MAMP, and MLV series products that have respiratory applications will work in these low pressure applications.

Classic Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Oxygen Concentrator Diagram

Classic pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen concentrators use two-bed molecular sieves.

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