Pressure and a Properly Flushing Toilet

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure and a Properly Flushing Toilet

Replacing a toilet fill valve can solve some of the common toilet problems including excessive noise. With the proper adjustments, an adjustable universal fill valve works on a variety of toilet models. For example, one manufacturer’s fill valve has a gross height adjustment that extends the unit from 9 to 14 inches and a fine water level adjusting screw to set the level of water in the tank. While adjusting the water level lower to be more conservative and save water for each flush may seem like a good idea, the difference in as little as ½ to 1-inch of water height in the tank can mean the difference between the toilet flushing properly or requiring a second flush.

A ½-inch of water is only 0.018 psi, 124.5 Pa or 0.0368 millimeter of mercury (mm Hg). Measuring this low pressure is often a problem for pressure sensors but the All Sensors MLDX Series has 5 and 10 inH2O ratings to measure the low pressures found in many medical and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) flow applications, as well as other ratings up to 100 psi. Fortunately, for toilet adjustments, it is simply a matter of observing the situation to make the proper adjustments and no pressure sensing is involved.

Fluidmaster Toilet Fill Valve

Image courtesy of Fluidmaster

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Pressure and Sneezing

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure and Sneezing

Don’t cover a cough or sneeze with your hand — cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve. It just makes sense, since the hand will be used to touch something including another person’s hand and spread any germs in the cough or sneeze unless the hands are washed immediately.

According to one author, “a sneeze is an expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth.” Without any covering at all, a sneeze can project droplets at a speed of up to 100 miles per hour for a distance of as much as 26 feet (8 meters) due to the pressure in the windpipe. While the sneeze only last for as long as 150 milliseconds, the droplets can stay suspended in the air for up to 10 minutes.

In either case, covered or uncovered,  the pressure developed during the sneeze can be around 1 psi (51.7 mmHg) in the windpipe. Another author measured the pressure developed in the mouth/pharynx during a sneeze as about 135 mmHg (2.6 psi) reached in about 0.1s. In contrast, a person exhaling hard during strenuous activity has a windpipe pressure of about 0.03 psi (1.55 mmHg). If you try to hold the sneeze back, the pressure inside the respiratory system can increase to a level of about 5 to 24 times the sneeze pressure. In rare instances, this pressure level can have detrimental side effects including:

  • Ruptured eardrum
  • Middle ear infection
  • Damaged blood vessels in the eyes, nose, or eardrums
  • Diaphragm injury
  • Aneurysm
  • Throat damage
  • Broken ribs

WikiHow Stop a Sneeze

Image source: https://www.wikihow.com/Stop-a-Sneeze

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Fracking and Pressure

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Fracking and Pressure

In hydraulic fracturing or fracking, after a vertical shaft is dug from 1 to 2 miles deep in the earth to locate natural gas or oil, horizontal drilling occurs that can extend up to a mile from the vertical shaft. With the fracking well encased in steel and/or cement to prevent leakage into ground water, a fracking fluid is pumped down the well at pressures that can exceed 9,000 pounds per square inch (psi) or 62,050 kilopascals (kPA). This pressure can fracture the surrounding rock and create fissures and cracks for oil and gas flow. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), about 13,000 new wells are drilled every year.

The Fracking Process

The fracking process: pressures ≤ 90,000 psi. Figure courtesy of Friends of the Earth.

 

With concerns over the consequences of fracking, many people’s blood pressure increases when the topic of fracking is discussed. Unlike, fracking pressures themselves, this pressure measurement is perfect for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors.

Blood Pressure

The results of fracking discussions: higher blood pressures ≥ 120-mm Hg. Figure courtesy of Shutterstock.

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Pressure for Clean Windows

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure for Clean Windows

Cleaning the glass windows at ground level for a multistory building is a little more complicated than the usual window cleaning task that most people hate. While much safer and less complex than rigs that clean high-rise buildings, as much as a 40-foot piping or pole system is required to reach windows in a four-story building from ground level but over 70-foot long poles are available. In most cases, the extended length consists of smaller sections pre-assembled at the building site for each operation but in some instances, a telescoping technique is used, at least for the last section.

With the water being pumped up several feet, a significant pressure drop can occur. For a 40-ft length pole, 17.3 psi is lost with 21.6 psi dropped at 50 feet and a 30.3 psi drop at 70 feet. As part of the water supply, water is pre-filtered. It then goes through a pressurized tank with a sand-like resin, so normal residential or commercial water pressure is increased.

Water-Fed Pole Cleaning System

While the poles in a water-fed pole cleaning system are made of lightweight carbon fiber, it still takes some strength and balance to do the job.

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