Oxygen Tank Pressure

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Oxygen Tank Pressure

For many reasons, patients that require additional oxygen use storage tanks with compressed oxygen to supplement their normal air intake.  The size and subsequent capacity of the tank may vary but the full pressure is typically about 2,000 psi and can go as high as 3,000 psi. With this pressure level in the tank, a regulator converts the supplied pressure to a lower, and much safer, level for the user. With newer aluminum and other materials instead of steel to avoid magnetism problems in situations such Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) tests, the pressure level is lower. Minimum pressure in tanks is around 300 psi with delivery systems operating at pressure below 400 psi. In contrast, the storage and delivery system of liquid oxygen in a hospital, pressures are usually around 50.0–55.1 psi. The amount of oxygen present inside the cylinder is measured by the pressure at the outlet nozzle.

PV/T = constant

where P is pressure in the cylinder,

V is the volume of the cylinder,

and T is the temperature

Applied Home Healthcare Equipment

Image courtesy of Applied Home Healthcare Equipment.

Normal clean air contains 19% to 21% oxygen. In contrast, a supply of 60% oxygen with 40% nitrogen is considered acceptable for most clinical purposes but usually high much higher content is available.

Portable oxygen cylinders often have flow and pressure gauges. They provide easy, on sight measurements for a user. However, remote monitoring can use microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors to provide an electrical signal that can be transmitted to one or more receivers.  With this information displayed remotely, a variety of healthcare givers can access and use the information.

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Pressure and Gas Chromatography

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure and Gas Chromatography

Gas chromatography uses stationary and mobile phases for separating and analyzing mixtures according to “Chromatography Composition Measurement,” in The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook. To perform the necessary steps, the typical gas chromatograph has several different aspects. It starts with a pressure regulated carrier gas supply. The carrier gas pressures are typically 34 to 69 kPa (5 to 10 psig) to 138 to 340 kPa (20 to 50 psig) at gas flow rates of 1 mL min-1 or less. If the data system monitors and records the supplied pressures, pressure sensors would also be used.

To measure this range of pressures, All Sensors SPM 401 Series of media isolated sensors would provide a good solution since process control and monitoring systems are target applications.

Gas Chromatograph

The components of a gas chromatograph include regulating gas pressure.  Source: http://faculty.uml.edu/david_ryan/84.314/Instrumental%20Lecture%2016.pdf

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Pressure for Emergencies

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure for Emergencies

Safely evacuating a building in emergency situations can be accomplished with the pressure stored in compressed air containers. An inflatable escape chute allows people trapped in locations up to four stories high to easily slide to the ground. With the proper pressure in the canister, the slide can be fully inflated in less than 6 seconds. The safety system is reasonably obscure when not in use, but a manual inside activation of the pressurized container brings the system to life. The system strictly uses pressure to ensure operation even during power failure situations.

Slide to Safety - SlideImages courtesy of Slide to Safety

With the sensors that are embedded in each unit, an operator can remotely monitor the air pressure in the tank to ensure that it is within correct limits and can also determine if tampering has occurred.

Manufactured by Slide to Safety, the company’s Rapid Evacuation System (RES) was developed after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. However, it has potential applications in colleges, universities, commercial offices, residences, apartment buildings, motels and hotels, hospitals, government facilities or any multi-storied building.

Slide to Safety - Rapid Evacuation System

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Optimal Pressure for Clean Teeth

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Optimal Pressure for Clean Teeth

While some electric toothbrushes use pulsating water jets or oral irrigators with water pressures between 10 to 100 psi, some ultrasonic technology toothbrushes now integrate a pressure sensor to avoid brushing too hard. With their built-in pressure sensors, Philips ProtectiveClean or DiamondClean Smart series of toothbrushes have at least three modes and three intensities.

If the user is brushing too hard, the toothbrush handle vibrates and makes a pulsing sound as a reminder to not exert as much pressure. Other toothbrush manufacturers, such as the Oral-B Genius Pro 8000, have also integrated pressure sensors into their toothbrushes. This indicates that users are receiving value and willing to pay more, sometimes a lot more, for these premium types of toothbrushes. With a pressure sensor, the user can optimize the cleaning process and avoid damage to gums and even teeth.

While manufacturers reveal no information about the pressures involved, a university study from the 1970s found that 19.53 gm/mm2 (191.5 kPa or 27.8 psi or 1437 mm Hg) ±6.48 gm/mm2 (63.55kPa or 9.22 psi or 477 mm Hg) typically resulted from using a hard bristle toothbrush with lower pressures for soft and powered toothbrushes.

Koninklijke Philips N.V.  Sonicare ProtectiveClean 6100

Figure courtesy of Koninklijke Philips N.V.

Comments/Questions?
Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
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