Weighing a Pod with Pressure

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Weighing a Pod with Pressure

In shipping operations, the weight of the load is important. The transporting vehicles have weight restrictions determined by the physical limitations of the truck and its engine. In addition, the transportation can be regulated by the state’s Department of Transportation (DOT). Federal laws regulate the weight of commercial vehicles on roads and bridges as well.

To easily measure the weight of a load, pressure measurements (in pounds per square inch (psi)) can easily be converted to pounds, especially where hydraulic cylinders lift the load. The area (A=πR2) of the piston in the cylinder (times the total number pistons performing the lifting) multiplied by the pressure reading provides the weight of the load (in pounds).

In many instances, analog gauges still provide the readout, since they are easy to read by an operator controlling the loading process. However, if the measurement needs to be communicated to a central system and coordinator in charge of managing the loading and shipping of many containers and vehicles, a digital microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor provides an easy-to-use digital alternative.

Force Pressure Readings of Pod Measurements

The vehicle operator sees a weight measurement but the gauge actually measures pressure.

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Pressure Readings Aplenty in a Fire Truck

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure Readings Aplenty in a Fire Truck

If you are coming to the rescue in a fire truck, you need to bring several pressure gauges. A recent trip to the local fire department brought this point home.

Firetruck Pressure Gauges

Two large pressure gauges in the upper left-hand corner for the supply line show the intake water pressure from a fire hydrant and output (master discharge pressure) from the pump on the vehicle and have a maximum reading capability of 400 psi. The next row shows the readings from seven valve-controlled stations that are monitored for their ability to respond when necessary. Note that the gauges are color coded to allow easy identification of a specific zone.

Analog gauges are easy to read and convenient for a fire fighter controlling the valves. However, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors with digital readouts and ability to transmit those reading to another monitoring location could provide additional benefits to the fire fighters and the fire control process.

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Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Devices

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Devices

Positive airway pressure (PAP), most commonly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), machines provide treatment for sleep apnea. With William Shatner (Captain Kirk from Star Trek) as the spokesperson in TV advertisements for CPAP cleaner SoClean, even people who do not have sleep apnea or need a CPAP device are aware of CPAP therapy. The mask and tubing, that need to be cleaned, deliver a pressure in the low centimeters of water (cm H2O) range to the patient to prevent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) – breathing pauses that last longer than 10 seconds. However, much longer and frequent occurrences are common.

According to research funded by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), sleep apnea is thought to affect nearly 30 million people in the United States, or 12 percent of the population. Besides OSA, there are also central sleep apnea and complex sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea is caused by a neurological reason and complex sleep apnea is a combination of obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. Each of these may require different PAP therapy.

BiPAP Devices | Verywell Health

Image Source: cherrybeans / Getty Images

As a result, CPAP devices are not the only machines used for positive airway pressure therapy. There are also BPAP (or BiPAP) and APAP classifications. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP) machines alternate the delivery of two separate pressure levels.

The two levels in BPAP therapy are inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). IPAP is the pressure the machine provides as the patient inhales. BPAP provides a higher IPAP than the CPAP, so, inhaling is easier. EPAP is the pressure the machine provides when the patient exhales. The BPAP’s lower pressure allows comfortable exhaling.

Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) machines use a variable pressure range and adjust the pressure based on the resistance in the patient’s breathing.

All of the pressure settings in these machines require accurate and stable low pressure measurements. Pressures in the 4 cm H2O to 20 cm H2O are common. For safe and accurate measurements for sleep apnea, essentially any of All Sensors’ DLHR, DLVR, ELVR, ELV and MLV series products that have respiratory pressure ranges will work in these ultra low-pressure applications.

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Cistern and Tunnel Pressures

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Cistern and Tunnel Pressures

In the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, troglodyte civilizations (people who lived in caves and worked underground) relied on cisterns and water tunnels for their drinking and irrigation water supply.

Tunnels cut within porous volcanic rocks in a valley provided irrigation. In addition to a continuous and controlled water supply and irrigation of the agricultural lands, an additional benefit for the effort to dig the tunnel was it decreased the surface water flow to widen the efficient agricultural lands in the valleys and protect the valleys from floods.

In “Water tunnels of Guvercinlink Valley (Cappadocia – Turkey),”  the authors observe that the main water channel that runs a total length of 3600 meters with 51 separate surface connections and several side tunnels is a “marvelous example of hydraulic engineering of Middle Ages or older times.”

Cisterns were dug in the cave cities for drinking water. One city, Derinkuyu, the largest of several underground cities in Cappadocia, is located near Nevsehir. The city is 280 feet deep, consists of 18 floors and dates back to Hittite (1700 to 1200 BC) times. With that depth, the water could be stored at a higher level providing easier access to the users.

Water Tunnels, Cappadocia, Turkey | Travel Awaits

Image source: Travel Awaits

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