Smoke Bomb Pressures

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Smoke Bomb Pressures

Smoke bombs have a variety of applications from detecting leaks in plumbing systems to discovering alternate entrances in collapsed caves or mines or providing cover/smoking out individuals in dangerous situations. Since they are bombs, pressure is involved in their safe and effective use.

Sewer smoke bombs are injected into a plumbing system through a smoke blower. One type of manhole air/smoke blower injects dense white smoke into sanitary or storm sewers for quick detection of unwanted inflows and leaks from roof downspouts, drain tiles, leaking manholes and more. In these smoke blowers, the amount of air flow and static pressure can vary depending on added features from 1800 cubic feet per minute (CFM) at 1.7-inch static pressure for a standard capacity unit to 4200 CFM at 3.0-inch static pressure and 4000 CFM at 4.0-inch static pressure with optional hardware.

For dangerous situations that require providing cover for first responders or smoking out the bad guys, the burning pressure for M18 colored-smoke grenades is usually less than 1 psi. If the smoke bomb was intended to simply deliver a colorful display, there needs to be sufficient pressure inside the smoke bomb to push the smoke out but not too much pressure or else it will burst.

Source: ThoughtCo. (Waldemar Blazej Nowak / EyeEm / Getty Images)

Source: ThoughtCo. (Waldemar Blazej Nowak / EyeEm / Getty Images)

When the dye in a display smoke bomb is vaporized, the pressure from combustion forces it out to produce the smoke.

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Bite Force Pressures

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Bite Force Pressures

You may have heard or read about or even seen the video of a caged male lion biting off the finger of a Jamaican zookeeper who put his hand through the cage’s fencing. While there are many responses that an event like this can trigger, a technical one is “how much bite force does a lion have?” Depending on their age, size and gender, a lion’s bite force can range between 650 and 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), according to A-Z Animals, an online animal encyclopedia.

Lion BIte - New York PostDo not try this – even in a zoo.
Image source: New York Post.

How does a lion’s bite force that compare to other animals? The land animal with the greatest bite force is the saltwater crocodile with a measurement of 3,700 psi for a 17-ft long subject. A sensor placed at the end of a stick safely provided the force measurement. Since some saltwater crocodiles can reach up 23 feet in length, a much larger force would not be surprising. In contrast, researchers estimate that a 21-foot great white shark can produce a bite force of nearly 4,000 psi. However, this number is based on computer modeling – not actual measurements.

In humans, bite force is important especially in dental research. Since the researchers can rely on the cooperation the subject, the bite force measurements are made with force transducers, such as strain gauge transducers, piezoresistive transducers, piezoelectric transducers, optical fiber transducers and pressure-sensitive films. The average human bite force is 162 psi.

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Water Pressure Requirements in High-Rise Buildings

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Water Pressure Requirements in High-Rise Buildings

In high-rise buildings, a properly designed hot water distribution system presents several challenges. A compliant system requires a minimum pressure at every fixture. Per standards and guidelines, the minimum pressure is generally around 200 kPa (2 bar or 25 psi). Meeting the minimum pressure requirement in a high-rise building, requires a pump because water pressure drops approximately 10 kPa (0.1 bar or 1.5 psi) for every meter that it rises.

Although the pump helps meet the minimum pressure requirements for the higher floors, it causes problems elsewhere because the maximum pressures must not be exceeded that are generally around 500 kPa (5 bar or 80 psi). Without proper design considerations, achieving the minimum pressure at the top of the building, almost certainly means exceeding the maximum pressure at the bottom of the building.  The Figure shows an example of the pressure drop between floors in a high-rise building.

How to Design Hot Water Recirculation Systems in High-Rise Buildings (h2xengineering.com)Image source: How to Design Hot Water Recirculation Systems in High-Rise Buildings (h2xengineering.com)

Without appropriate design considerations, meeting the minimum pressure requirements at the highest floor means exceeding the maximum pressure limits at the lower four floors.

The use of pressure reduction valves (PRVs) and pressure zones (where the pressure is within a desired range) helps to provide a balanced system in high-rise buildings and avoids long wait times to receive hot water.

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Water Pressure: Can You Dig It? Can You Dig with It?

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Water Pressure: Can You Dig It? Can You Dig with It?

With a horizontal water pressure drill you can. For example, a water drill kit from one company enables horizontal boring under driveways or parking lots for a distance up to 50 ft. The kit includes a 3-inch water drill bit, swivel adapter, swivel assembly and a horizontal drill key.

Water Drilling Kit with 3” Bit - Little Beaver Store

Water drilling kit with 3” bit. Image source: Little Beaver Store.

Simple connecting the water swivel to a garden hose and some extra ¾” Schedule 80 water pipe enables a homeowner or worker to trench a path for running electrical wires or plumbing under the ground. In addition, it can simplify digging holes for a lamp post or plants. The water pressure from the home, typically between 40 to 60 PSI, provides sufficient force for water to do the digging.

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