Pressure for Dancing Waters

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Pressure for Dancing Waters

Dancing waters, waltzing waters or other terms for describing the combination of colors and the motion of water in a fountain with several spouts rely on changes in and controlling the pressure for a defined time at each point in a water grid.

The computer-controlled systems consist of water, holding tanks, pumps to create pressure, solenoid operated valves, lighting and quite a few cleaver design tricks. For one of world’s most famous fountains, the one at the Bellagio in Las Vegas, uses only white lights. The number of sprayers and the height more than make up for the lack of color, especially with the majestic hotel in the background.

The fountain has over 1,200 sprayers that include 16 super jets that launch water 460 feet in finales. Called shooters by Wet Design that constructed the system, four different types of shooters are identified:

      • Programmable oarsman make the water dance up to 77 feet
      • Minishooters reach 100 feet
      • Supershooters achieve 240 feet and
      • Extreme-shooters can propel water up to 460 feet

Design aspects of each type vary but the SuperShooter has a 12-ft high holding tank, 1 foot in diameter that contains about 765 gallons. When air stored at 200 psi in 60-gallon receivers is released into the tank, the water climbs up to 240 feet. In contrast, smaller shooters with smaller tanks only require a few psi of air pressure to send water 10 to 12 ft into the air.

A water display on board a cruise ship A water display at sea on a cruise ship provides an interesting variation to moving water.

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Diamond Rain

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Diamond Rain

Besides being planets in our solar system, what do Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus have in common? One answer is an abundance of diamonds. In fact, raining diamonds is frequently attributed to these planets.

On our planet, carbon atoms bond together to form diamond crystals under pressures of 725,000 psi (5,000,000 KPa or 5 GPa) and at temperatures of 2000 to 2200°F (1366 to 1478 K), conditions found deep within the earth’s mantle. With high concentration of methane in their atmospheres, the diamond planets just need the right combination of pressure and temperatures. On earth, scientists have dynamically compressed polystyrene (a hydrocarbon plastic) with pressures around 150 GPa (2.176e7 psi) and temperatures around 5,000 K (8540°F) – conditions that resemble the environment around 10,000 km below the surfaces of Neptune and Uranus. They concluded that diamond precipitation may require pressures about ten times as high as previously indicated by static compression experiments – and provided even more proof that diamonds are forever.

The Hope Diamond (Smithsonian Magazine)The Hope Diamond is earth’s most famous diamond.
Source: Smithsonian Magazine.

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Batteries and Pressure’s Role in Solar & Wind Power

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Batteries and Pressure’s Role in Solar & Wind Power

In discussions about renewable energy, especially non-technical discussions, one of the key aspects is usually forgotten: the need for batteries – a lot of batteries.  In real world systems, batteries must store the surplus energy generated when the sun shines and the wind blows for use when they do not. While there is ongoing research into different battery chemistries, today’s most common battery for renewable energy systems, especially off-grid solar power systems, is a variation of the venerable lead-acid design commonly used in cars. These batteries provide backup power today for medical telecommunication, utility, security and other applications where a power disruption would cause major problems.

The most advanced types use a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) design, for wet cell (flooded), gel and absorbed glass mat (AGM) technologies. Since they are sealed, the hydrogen generated from the negative plate and the oxygen generated from the positive plate must be regulated to avoid being lost to the atmosphere. This is accomplished through an internal self-sealing safety vent that is typically in the 3 to 10 psi range. While the regulation does not require pressure sensors in the application, pressure sensors are used in the research and development phase to verify that the design will work as promised in a variety of conditions for their design life of 20 years at 25°C.

Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Battery

The 1,096 ampere-hour (Ah) 48V AGM battery for an off-grid 4,590 kW solar system weighs 563*8 = 4,504 pounds (2.25 tons).

 

Grid-scale Energy Storage System unveiled by GE Power in 2018

Grid-scale Energy Storage System unveiled by GE Power in 2018
Source: GE Power on Inside Climate News.

 

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Sandblasting Pressure

Welcome to All Sensors “Put the Pressure on Us” blog. This blog brings out pressure sensor aspects in a variety of applications inspired by headlines, consumer and industry requirements, market research, government activities, and you.

Sandblasting Pressure

Removing paint, rust or an old finish from furniture and even polishing and finishing is less work with a sandblaster with the right abrasive and the right pressure. Small cabinet blasters often use pressures below 100 psi. In contrast, a heavy-duty sandblaster with a single-stage air compressor, air pressure over 120-150 psi is used to reduce the time involved. A pressure gauge is a common part of cabinet and portable sandblasters to obtain repeatable results.

Stark Tools 10 Gallon Air Sand Blaster

With a working pressure of 60 to 125 psi, this Stark Tools sandblaster has a 0 to 150 psi pressure gauge to obtain the desired operating pressure.
Image Courtesy of ToolPlanet.com

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Do you have a pressure sensing question? Let us know and we’ll address it in an upcoming blog.
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